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How Beaker Works

Peer-to-peer websites

Websites hosted over dat:// are often called peer-to-peer websites. What exactly is a peer-to-peer website anyway?

But first, what’s a website?

A website can be many things, but put simply, it’s a folder! That folder can contain files and even other folders. The files in a website can be photos, .txt files,.csv files, or any other type of file.

Most of the time when you visit a website, its files are sent to your browser with HTTP. Your browser displays a rendering of HTML files styled with CSS, and with interaction behavior defined by JavaScript.

Example: a simple website

    body {
      color: blue;

    <h1>Hello, world!</h1>

So what’s a peer-to-peer website?

A peer-to-peer website works just like any other website, but instead of being transported with HTTP, a peer-to-peer website’s files are transported (perhaps unsurprisingly) with a peer-to-peer protocol!

Instead of being hosted on a server, the files of a peer-to-peer website can be hosted from any computer! This means that you can publish a website from your personal computer, and your friends, your pet dog, or anyone else on the network can help keep your website’s files online.

In Beaker, a peer-to-peer website is simply a folder that’s been published with dat://. This website is a peer-to-peer website! You can visit dat:// to see for yourself.

Equalizing access to publishing

Peer-to-peer websites are exciting because they enable anyone to create and publish a website without needing to know how to run a server. As long as someone else on the network is seeding your website’s files, it will stay online.

Keeping a peer-to-peer website online

Peer-to-peer protocols like Dat make it possible to publish from your own computer, but what happens when you turn your computer off? Well, if no one else is seeding your files, your website won’t be available.

Other ways to seed a peer-to-peer website

It’s not practical to keep your computer on all the time, but don’t worry! There are plenty of other ways to keep your website’s files online:

  • Ask a friend to help seed your files with Beaker’s seeding menu
  • Share your website’s URL with a seeding service like Hashbase
  • Or if you’re feeling ambitious, set up your own seeding server with a tool like homebase

Read next: Peer-to-peer Web apps